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Grammar of the Hawaiian Language

By L. Andrews

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Book Id: WPLBN0002096791
Format Type: Default
File Size: 2 MB
Reproduction Date: 6/13/2011

Title: Grammar of the Hawaiian Language  
Author: L. Andrews
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Non Fiction, Education, Education on Hawaiian Language
Collection: Authors Community
Subcollection: Education
Historic
Publication Date:
1854
Publisher: Honolulu, Mission Press
Member Page: Hale Kuamoʻo Hawaiian Language Center

Description
Language, in all parts of the earth, is the principal medium of communication between men. It is employed only by rational beings, or such as to have the faculty of speech; that is, of uttering articulate sounds. Language is the medium of communicating ideas in two ways: 1st, by the use of the voice in the utterance of articulate sounds termed words; 2nd, by characters representing articulate sounds. The former is addressed to the ear, the latter to the eye. Languages, like the people of the earth, are divided into great families. These again, owing to some local or other circumstances, are divided into Dialects. A dialect is a branch of some more general language. A dialect is formed by leaving off from the forms of the general language, or by adding something new to them. The pronunciation may to some extent be altered etc. These changes may be produced by time, accident, culture or neglect. Most if not all the dialects of Polynesia appear to have had the same origin, which, in all probability, was the Malayan. As the Islands of the great Pacific Ocean, constituting Polynesia, are many and far separated, it is reasonable to suppose that their languages must vary from each other; and this is found to be a fact. Every language has certain great fundamental principles upon which it is constructed. These principles differing from each other constitute their peculiarity. Hence, every language in its etymology and syntax must be regulated by its own laws: though some general principles may run through the whole. The laws and usages of a language reduced to a system, or the principles of its construction drawn out to the eye, constitute its grammar. Grammars may be general or particular as they treat of the principles of some one of the family of languages, or of the language of a particular country in a general manner; or they may take up some particular dialect of a language and may elucidate its principles more minutely than could be done in a general grammar. The object of the following work is merely to draw out with some particularity the leading principles of the Hawaiian dialect. By Hawaiian dialect is meant the general language of the collective group of islands so named by the natives themselves from the name of their largest island. A general grammar of all the Polynesian languages is a disideratum. But probably such a grammar is yet to be written; for it is not known that such a work has yet been seriously attempted. If however such a work is meditated, it should not be delayed, for some of the more important materials are passing away, viz: the present race who only can be familiar with the pure language of the natives of Polynesia. The language of the present generation is already mixing with foreign idioms and introducing foreign words. The Hawaiian Dialect was reduced to writing by the Missionaries of the A. B. C. F. M. , and the first book was printed in January, 1822. Since that time the works printed for the use of Hawaiians in their own language amounted to about 6,415 continuous pages, of duo-decimo size, besides the Bible, Hymn books, etc. , etc. ; which amount was printed previous to 1843, since when there has been no accurate estimate made. —See Dibble's History of Hawaiian Islands. It was the object of those who first reduced the language to writing first, to ascertain what sounds there were in the language; and secondly, to express these sounds by the fewest characters. The characters used are the Roman; and the sound given to the vowels are those of the languages of Southern continental Europe rather than those of the English. The materials for the following grammar have been taken almost entirely from native manuscripts or from documents printed from native manuscripts. That is, every example cited to illustrate any principle has been copied from a manuscript written by a native or from a printed page originally written by a native. It is possible that some of the works written by the missionaries might be of equal authority; but as so much has been written by the natives themselves, it was thought best to appeal to them for authority in every case. If anything shall be inserted contrary to the above statement, it will be mentioned. It was, therefore, impossible to quote the authorities; that is, the names of the writers, except in this general way. After all, there will probably appear principles in the language which have been entirely overlooked, or mistaken in the development. If so, future editions or future laborers must be looked to for corrections or for the supply of deficiencies.

Excerpt
Grammar is a written account of the principles used in writing or speaking a language. A Hawaiian Grammar is an explanation of the rules and principles used by Hawaiians in speaking and writing their language. Grammatical Treatises are usually divided into several parts, viz. Orthography, Etymology, Syntax and Prosody. Orthography treats of letters and their formation into words. Etymology treats of words and their changes in relation to each other. Syntax teaches the rules whereby words are formed into sentences. Prosody will hardly be included in this Grammar. Note. — It is taken for granted, in this work, that the reader understands the principles of general Grammar; hence many definitions are omitted.

Table of Contents
Grammar Definition Sec. -- 1 —3 -- Part 1 Orthography -- 4 -- Hawaiian Alphabet -- 6 -- Division of Letters -- 8 —10 -- Of the Vowel Sounds -- 11 -- Of the Consonant Sounds -- 13 -- Of the Sounds of Foreign Consonants -- 14 Of Diphthongs -- 15—18 -- Of Syllables -- 19—23 -- Of Words -- 24—26 -- Formation of Words -- 27—36 -- Peculiarities in the Use of Words -- 37—40 -- Of Accents—General Law -- 41—45 -- Letters Dropped -- 46 -- Letters Inserted -- 48 -- Etymology Definition -- 52 -- Of the O Emphatic -- 53 -- Its Place in the Sentence—Rules -- 54 -- Of the Articles Generally -- 55—58 -- Definite articles ka and ke -- 59 -- Where they are Used -- 60—61 – Semi-definite Articles -- 63—65 -- Indefinite Articles -- 66 -- Plural Article -- 67 -- Of the Simple Prepositions -- 68 -- Their Use and Signification -- 69—75 -- Of Nouns Sec. -- 76 -- Nouns Proper and Common -- 77—78 -- Abstract and Concrete -- 79 -- Syllables forming a Class -- 80 -- Of Person -- 82 -- Definition three Persons -- 82 -- Of Number -- 83 -- Nouns have three numbers -- 83—85 -- Signs of Dual and Plural -- 86—94 -- Of Gender -- 95 -- No Neuter Gender -- 96 -- Specific Words for Genders -- 97 -- Of the Declension of Nouns -- 98 -- Case—Definition of Case -- 98 -- Number of Cases -- 99 -- Paradigm of Common Nouns -- 100 -- Paradigm of a Name of a Place -- 101 -- Nouns made Plural by Mau and Poe -- 102-103 -- Paradigm of a Name of a Person -- 104 -- Remarks on the Paradigms -- 105 -- Of Adjectives -- 106 -- Adjective Definition -- 106 -- Qualify Nouns variously -- 107 -- Place of Adjectives in the sentence -- 108 -- Division of Adjectives -- 109 -- Observations on Adjectives -- 110 -- Of He and Ua before Adjectives -- 111 -- Nouns turned into Adjectives -- 112 -- Adjectives used as Nouns -- 113 -- Three Degrees of Comparison -- 114 -- Comparative Sub-divided -- 114 -- Numeral Adjectives -- 115 -- Observation on Numeral Adjectives -- 116 -- Pronoun—Definition and Use -- Sec. -- 117 -- Classes—Person and Number -- 119—120 -- Personal Pronouns -- 121—122 -- Orthography of the First Person -- 123 -- Paradigm of First Person -- 124 -- Remarks on the Paradigm -- 125—126 -- Remarks on the Dual of First Person -- 127—128 -- Remarks on the First Person Plural -- 129—130 -- Second Person Singular -- 131 -- Declension of Second Person -- 132 -- Examples -- 133—135 -- Third Person Singular -- 136 -- Two different Words -- 137 -- Orthography of Third Person -- 138 -- Paradigm of Third Person Singular -- 139 -- Remarks on Third Person Singular -- 140 -- Third Person Dual -- 141 -- Third Person Plural -- 142 -- The Pronoun Hai -- 143 -- Pronouns Modifying Verbs -- 146 -- Pronouns with the Idea of Verbs -- 147 -- Prefix Pronouns -- 149 -- Two classes—First Class -- 150—151 -- Second Class -- 152 -- Examples—Remarks -- 153 -- Relative Pronouns -- 154 -- Interrogative Pronouns -- 156 -- Examples and Paradigm -- 157—158 -- Interrogatives Aha and Hea -- 159—160 -- Declinable—Examples -- 161—164 -- Adverbs of Three Classes -- 165 -- Second Class Declined—Examples -- 165 -- Definitions and Use -- 166 -- interjection-Definition—Examples -- 167 -- Definition. Not Necessary to an Idea -- 168 -- No Verb of Existence -- 170 -- How Existence Possessing Etc. are Expressed -- Sec. -- 171 -- No Auxiliary Verbs -- 171 -- No Variation of Verb itself -- 172 -- Person—Number -- 174—176 -- Double. First Persons Dual and Plural -- 178 -- Number of Moods -- 179—180 -- Definition -- 181 -- Hoot of a Verb -- 182 -- Five Forms Examples -- 183—188 -- Present Tense Examples -- 189 -- Future Tense Two Forms Remarks -- 190 -- Definition Use Remarks -- 191—192 -- Definition Use Preterite Four Forms -- 193—197 -- Present Subjunctive Examples -- 198 -- Future Subjunctive Examples -- 199—201 -- Infinitive Forms Examples -- 203 -- Present Preterite Gerund -- 204—206 -- Synopsis of the First Conjunction -- 207—208 -- Definition Remarks etc. -- 209—210 -- Examples -- 211—228 -- Definition Examples -- 230—231 -- Anomalous Verb Loa’a -- 232 -- Explanation -- 233 -- What the Directives are -- 234 -- Paradigm with Directives -- 235—238 -- The Syllable La -- 239—240 -- Further Remarks -- 241 -- The Syllable Ai Examples -- 242 --

 

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